Evaluation and analysis of domestic and international carbon market mechanisms, with the objective to inform design of new mechanisms which can support countries to achieve their climate commitments, to increase future ambition, and to support sustainable development.


x% of the world's heavy polluting industries are now covered under carbon market mechanisms.
Many of the world’s heavy polluting industries are now covered under carbon market mechanisms.

Carbon market mechanisms play an important role in many international and domestic discussions around climate change mitigation efforts and come with both opportunities, but also risks. Internationally, the 2015 Paris Agreement set out provisions for market mechanisms to assist countries in achieving their nationally determined contributions, increase ambition and support sustainable development. Parties continue to work on the exact design of these mechanisms. International aviation and shipping are also considering carbon market mechanisms as a climate change measure. The “Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation” (CORSIA), is set to begin from 2021; and International Maritime Organization (IMO) also lists market-based measures as a candidate measure for its strategy to reduce GHG from global shipping. Increasing numbers of national and sub-national jurisdictions are also working on various forms of carbon pricing.

NewClimate Institute is active in the field of analysis, evaluation and design of international and domestic carbon market mechanisms. We evaluate the Kyoto mechanisms and reflect on the lessons learned from them to inform the design and development of future mechanisms, particularly those that increase mitigation ambition of countries and deliver an overall mitigation impact. Our experts combine years of experience working in various capacities with the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI), the EU ETS and voluntary offsetting markets; provide inputs to discussions under CORSIA and IMO; and advise international policy makers on emerging market concepts and piloting activities.

Key contacts

Carsten Warnecke
Carsten Warnecke

Thomas Day
Thomas
Day

Return to all expertise


Associated projects

Understanding Climate Neutrality and Net Zero Targets

A growing number of countries and companies are setting climate neutrality or “net-zero” targets. Although the apparent growth in climate ambition of these actors is a promising development…

Informing EU policy options for tackling aviation’s climate impact

Assessing ICAO’s global market-based measure (CORSIA) and its interaction with the EU ETS.

CORSIA: Analysis and evaluation of regulating international aviation emissions through offsetting

NewClimate Institute conducted research to support the German Emission Trading Authority on CORSIA design issues.

Future role for voluntary carbon markets after 2020

This research project considers the future role for voluntary carbon markets after 2020.

Analysis of pre-2020 developments in the global carbon market

Continuous analysis of the status and developments of mitigation activities in the global carbon market up to 2020. Return to all expertise and projects The German Emission Trading Authority (DEHSt) at the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) contracted a consortium, led by NewClimate Institute, to evaluate the situation and developments in the international carbon market over… Read More

Virtual Article 6 Pilots

NewClimate Institute is working to elaborate virtual Article 6 pilots to contribute to the discussion regarding rulemaking for Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.

Sustainable development framework for market mechanisms

This ongoing research project aims to overcome the previously identified barriers to combine SD and GHG mitigation impacts through the identification of practical solutions and concrete proposals for the implementation of SD indicators in GHG mitigation projects.

Technical advisory services “Global Carbon Market”

NewClimate Institute was contracted by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), as part of a larger consortium, to advise GIZ’s agency on its “Global Carbon Market” project.

Benchmarking Guide for climate policy instruments

NewClimate Institute developed a practical and in-depth guide on how to design and implement benchmarks for policy makers.

Innovative Financing Options for the Adaptation Fund

Assessing potentials and pathways for financing adaptation through carbon pricing approaches

Development of a sectoral market based approach

Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation in Colombian Housing Return to all expertise and projects Colombia faces an affordable housing deficit, rapid urbanisation pressure, and the need to improve energy efficiency to reduce emissions from the building sector while working towards longer term decarbonisation. To address these challenges, NewClimate Institute and Oeko Institute, supported by… Read More

Integration of market mechanisms and emission trading schemes

Design and integration of market mechanisms and emission trading schemes under a new climate change agreement. The German emission trading authority (DEHSt/UBA) contracted NewClimate Institute together with adelphi and Öko-Institut to provide a foundation for the formulation and further development of a German position in the climate negotiations, and to facilitate a scientifically-based contribution of… Read More

Offsetting in carbon taxation systems

Analysis of the potentials and limits of different offset standards in bilateral and global CO2 price systems. Currently, an increasing number of countries and regions develops CO2 pricing mechanisms, including carbon taxes and emission trading systems. Some of these countries are designing or plan to design standards for the use of offsets in their pricing… Read More

Carbon market mechanisms in future international cooperation on climate change

Overview of the options for the use of carbon market mechanisms in a 2015 climate change agreement

Carbon integrity assessment of mitigation actions

Development of a methodology and scorecard to assess the carbon integrity of mitigation actions

Results-based financing in Carbon Markets – connecting market and non-market based approaches

Current situation of results-based financing (RBF) approaches in climate policy.

Bilateral agreements as basis towards piloting sectoral market mechanisms

Opportunities provided by bilateral agreements for piloting market-based approaches at sectoral levels. The research work analyses how bilateral agreements between countries could be used to pilot international carbon market activities on sectoral levels to ensure a minimum activity level in this transition period from existing to new mechanisms. Return to all expertise and projects The… Read More

Evaluating the state of the CDM

Evaluation of the present implementation status of CDM projects and identification of support measures to keep CDM projects mitigating. Return to all expertise and projects The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was introduced by the Kyoto Protocol and has developed into one of the most important international carbon market instruments. The CDM stimulated investments in greenhouse… Read More


Further reading

Considerations for Article 6 engagement Nov 2020 - What should countries considering hosting emission reduction activities take into account with regard to engaging in carbon markets under the Paris Agreement.
Setting Incentives for Emission Reductions in Developing Countries: The Case of Social Housing in Colombia Nov 2020 - Exploration and discussion of considerations for a Net Zero Energy Building Article 6 Pilot under the Paris Agreement in Colombia.
CDM supply potential for emission reductions up to the end of 2020 Nov 2020 - Updated estimates of CDM supply potential to inform ongoing negotiations at the UNFCCC on rules for Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.
Future role for voluntary carbon markets in the Paris era Nov 2020 - We critically assess options for the voluntary carbon market and offer a set of recommendations, heading into the Paris era.
Analysis and assessment of the design of an offsetting system for international aviation Nov 2020 - This research project analyses matters that are critical for implementing CORSIA and ensuring that it effectively delivers on its objective of achieving carbon neutral growth.
Climate neutrality claims Sep 2020 - Country and company climate neutrality targets are not all equal. This discussion paper explores factors to consider in gauging the ambition of climate neutrality targets from climate leadership to greenwashing.
Options for supporting Carbon Dioxide Removal Jul 2020 - This paper examines the broad policy frameworks that can support the development and upscaling of Carbon Dioxide Removal and, in particular, whether CDR can be supported by offsetting schemes.
Options for Improving the Emission Unit Eligibility Criteria (EUCs) under the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) May 2020 - This discussion paper assesses options for improving the current Emissions Unit Eligibility Criteria (EUCs) used for the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
Renewable heating virtual Article 6 pilot Jan 2020 - Ground source heat pumps in Mongolia - an ambitious option for an Article 6 ITMO transaction.
Net-zero energy housing virtual Article 6 pilot Jan 2020 - Net-zero energy buildings in Colombia - an ambitious option for an ambitious Article 6 ITMO transaction.

Public presentations & interviews

The role of offsetting in ambition raising and net-zero Oct 2020 - Carsten Warnecke presented on "The role of offsetting in ambition raising and net-zero" at the 20th IEA-IETA-EPRI GHG Trading Workshop in October 2020.
Offsetting emissions under CORSIA – Analysing the potential supply of credits Jun 2019 - Carsten Warnecke presented on "Offsetting emissions under CORSIA - Analysing the potential supply of credits" at Innovate4Climate in June 2019.
From the skies or the sea: How can regulation align international transport with the Paris goals? Dec 2018 - Aki Kachi, Harry Fearnehough and Thomas day presented on "From the skies or the sea: How can regulation align international transport with the Paris goals?" at COP24.
Are countries ready for Article 6? – COP 23 Nov 2017 - Ritika Tewari (alumni) from NewClimate Institute presented findings from the Germany’s international cooperation on carbon markets report that is looking at Ukraine, Vietnam and Ethiopia readiness to implement Paris Agreement’s Article 6.
Innovative Financing for the Adaptation Fund (AFB29) Mar 2017 - Climate Policy Analyst, Ritika Tewari (alumni), presented the findings of the ‘Innovative Financing for the Adaptation Fund: Pathways and Potentials’ report at the 29th Adpatation Fund Board meeting that took place during the 16th and 17th March in Bonn, Germany. Read the full report
Innovative financing options for the Adaptation Fund Nov 2016 - Carsten Warnecke from NewClimate Institute presents at COP22 in Marrakesh on innovative financing options for the Adaptation Fund.  09 November 2016, 11:30 Mediterranean Room, COP22 Livestream
Impact of the Clean Development Mechanism Dec 2015 - 02 December 2015 Thomas Day of NewClimate Institute presents at COP 21 on “The impact of the Clean Development Mechanism – Quantifying the current and pre-2020 mitigation impact of the CDM”. Wednesday, 2 December, 12.00, German Pavilion.    
An overview of the status quo, prospects and outlook of market mechanisms Dec 2015 - 02 December 2015 Carsten Warnecke of NewClimate Institute presents at COP 21 on “The status quo, prospects and outlook of market mechanisms”. Wednesday, 2 December, 12.00, German Pavilion.    
Approaches to lift sectoral mitigation potential with markets in transition Dec 2014 - NewClimate Institute at COP 20 presents insights from research project on "Bilateral Agreements as Basis Towards Piloting Sectoral Market Mechanisms".