Research, analysis and innovative thought on options discussed at the international climate negotiations, including detailed modalities of the ambition-raising mechanism under the 2015 Paris Agreement towards the 2/1.5 °C limit.

Hanna Fekete from NewClimate Institute speaking at the Conference of Parties in Warsaw, 2013
Hanna Fekete from NewClimate Institute speaking at the Conference of Parties in Warsaw, 2013

If the emissions gap is to be closed and the global warming kept below 2/1.5 °C, as the 2015 Paris Agreement aims, raising the ambition on action against climate change is urgent. The next 10 years will show if a transition towards a sustainable, greenhouse gas-free society can be made.The Paris Agreement puts into place some essential elements to ratchet up national ambition towards the 2/1.5 °C limit and net zero emissions in the second half of this century. However, there is much further work to be done on the exact modalities to effectively raise mitigation ambition. We support the successful implementation of the Paris Agreement through research and analysis, in particular modalities of review and the global stocktake, the nature and level of commitment in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), and the possible shape of a long term goal of net zero greenhouse gas emissions at national level.

Key contacts

Prof. Dr. Niklas Höhne
Prof. Dr. Niklas Höhne
Hanna Fekete

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Associated projects

Implications of the Paris Agreement on national climate change mitigation efforts

NewClimate, in a consortium with Climate Analytics, Fraunhofer ISI and Ecologic investigates medium and long-term targets for various large emitters of greenhouse gases (Brazil, Canada, China, EU28, Germany, India, Japan, and USA).

EU Climate diplomacy

Analysis of the EU’s climate diplomacy effectiveness for developing recommendations on the EU’s strategy for the negotiations and the implementation of the Paris agreement. Return to all expertise and projects In a consortium with E3G, Acclimatise and Perspectives, under the leadership of ICF International, NewClimate Institute supports a study on the EU’s climate diplomacy activities.… Read More

Lessons and impacts from the INDC process

Experiences from INDC preparation, and impacts and implications of the process for national climate policy making and the international climate negotiation process

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution for Vietnam

Support for the preparation of the INDC for the waste and agriculture sectors

Supporting the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) process in Uganda

Technical assistance to the Government of Uganda for the preparation of the mitigation component of the INDC.

Developing benchmarks for Intended Nationally Determined Contributions

Development of benchmarks for potential Intended Nationally Determined Contributions in over 40 countries

Co-benefits of climate change contributions

Assessing the achieved and missed co-benefits of countries’ Intended Nationally Determined Contributions

Experiences and lessons learned in the preparation of INDCs

Tracking the progression of INDC preparation progress worldwide, and sharing knowledge for best practices in INDC preparation.

UNEP emissions gap reports

Since 2010, UNEP synthesises information on the gap between current trend in greenhouse gas emissions and where they would have to be in order to stabilize global temperature increase at 2°C.

Modelling climate policies of major emitters

Technical background report on analysis of current and potential climate policies for enhancing mitigation ambition in the major emitting countries. Return to all expertise and projects This project identifies important climate policies of the major emitters and estimates their impact on emissions. The analysis, conducted together with PBL, IIASA and Ecofys for the European Commission,… Read More

Accounting under a 2015 agreement

Analysis of options for accounting in a new international climate change regime under a 2015 agreement. Return to all expertise and projects Parties have agreed to negotiate a new international climate agreement until 2015. This new agreement will diverge from the first international climate agreement, the Kyoto Protocol, in two very important ways: first it… Read More

ACT 2015

Consortium of the world’s top climate experts to catalyze discussion and build momentum toward reaching a global climate agreement at the forthcoming UNFCCC summit in 2015. Return to all expertise and projects The Agreement on Climate Transformation 2015 (ACT 2015) consortium is a group of the world’s top climate experts from developing and developed countries… Read More

Mitigation responsibilities under a 2015 international climate agreement

Analysis of options for mitigation commitments post-2020 under the new international climate agreement to be finalised in 2015. Return to all expertise and projects A new international climate agreement is to be finalised in 2015. It is to enter into force in 2020 and to include – besides other aspects such as finance and adaptation-… Read More

Climate Action Tracker

Climate Action Tracker provides regularly updated information on countries’ emission reduction policies. It reflects the latest status of the progress being made at international climate negotiations on mitigation commitments. The Climate Action Tracker is a science-based assessment that provides regularly updated information on countries’ emission reduction proposals and policies. It reflects the latest status of… Read More

Further reading

How could the concept of an “overall mitigation in global emissions” (OMGE) be operationalized under the Paris Agreement? Jun 2019 - This paper addresses questions that have been raised in relation to OMGE. It draws on a study conducted by Lambert Schneider and NewClimate Institute.
The Emissions Gap Report 2018: A UN Environment Synthesis Report Nov 2018 - This is the 9th edition of the UN Environment Emissions Gap Report. It assesses the latest scientific studies on current and estimated future greenhouse gas emissions and compares these with the emission levels permissible for the world to progress on a least-cost pathway to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement.
Operationalising an ‘overall mitigation in global emissions’ under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement Nov 2018 - A key requirement of the mechanism established by Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement is that it shall aim to deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions. This report identifies and discusses key options for operationalising this concept, leading to distinct recommendations to support the ongoing...
Coordinating finance for sustainable refrigeration and air conditioning Sep 2018 - This paper provides an overview of the current situation and options for financing sustainable refrigeration and air conditioning.
Global climate action from cities, regions and businesses Aug 2018 - This report is the most comprehensive assessment of these non-state actor commitments to reduce greenhouse gases to date. Key results show that action by cities, states, regions and business can go a long way towards meeting the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement, but their actions alone are not enough to hold global temperature increase to well-below 2°C and work towards limiting it to 1.5° C.
Setting the Paris Agreement in Motion: Key Requirements for the Implementing Guidelines Aug 2018 - With the December 2018 deadline to operationalize the Paris Agreement looming, climate negotiators are faced with the herculean task of pulling together volumes of draft notes and the disparate views of negotiating blocs into comprehensive implementing guidelines to be adopted later this year. A new paper from the Project for Advancing Climate Transparency provides both an overarching vision and practical suggestions for what should be included in the main pillars of the implementing guidelines of the Paris Agreement. 
National climate change mitigation legislation, strategy and targets: a global update Aug 2018 - This paper analyses trends in adoption of national climate legislation and strategies, GHG targets, and renewable and energy efficiency targets in almost all UNFCCC Parties, focusing on the period from 2007 to 2017.
Opportunities and safeguards for ambition raising through Article 6 May 2018 - In this paper, we discuss the ambition raising implications to engage in voluntary cooperation under Article 6 for the originating Parties. The paper shows why Article 6 should focus on driving mitigation in otherwise inaccessible abatement options and why it is critical that support should only last for a limited time period, after which own action must kick-in.
The EU can increase its climate targets to be in line with a global 1.5°C target May 2018 - This project analyses best practice policies across Europe and how far extending them to all EU member states could support EU Greenhouse Gases (GHG) and energy targets. It finds that the EU can go much further than its current commitments in terms of GHG reductions: it has the potential to reach -55% to -62% below 1990 by 2030, consistent with the Paris commitment of staying “well below 2°C, pursuing 1.5°C”.
Non-state action towards climate-friendly and energy-efficient cooling Apr 2018 - Although timely action on HFCs is likely to bring multiple benefits for end-users of cooling technologies, only few non-state actor driven initiatives exist yet that specifically target the RAC sector. It is important to address the barriers to non-state action in the RAC sector, while recognising that non-state action always needs to be accompanied by effective government policy and regulation to successfully address the climate challenge.

Public presentations & interviews

Was müssen wir tun, um das Pariser Klimaabkommen umzusetzen? Mar 2017 - 25 March 2017, Bonn Prof. Dr. Niklas Höhne, founding partner of NewClimate Institute, gave a presentation on how to implement the Paris Agreement at the “Jetzt. Klima. Wenden.” event organised by the Europagruppe Grüne.
Lessons learned from INDC preparation Dec 2015 - Niklas Höhne presents from Paris at COP21 on the lessons learned from INDC preparation, and the INDC process as a catalyst for enhanced national climate action
Measuring progress and completing the deal – Climate Change 2015: Building Agreement Towards 2°C, Paris and Beyond Oct 2015 - 26 October 2015 Niklas Höhne of NewClimate Institute presents at the 19th Annual Chatham House Climate Change Conference on “Climate Change 2015: Building Agreement Towards 2°C, Paris and Beyond”. Chatham House Conference
Lunch presentation: Development of 2°C compatible investment criteria Oct 2015 - 21 October 2015 Niklas Höhne of NewClimate Institute presents at a lunch event hosted by the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) at the margins of the UNFCCC ADP negotiations on the development of 2°C compatible investment criteria.
Webinar: Overcoming the challenges of INDC preparation: experiences and lessons learned Aug 2015 - Niklas Höhne of NewClimate Institute presents in a webinar hosted by UNDP on experiences and lessons learned from INDC preparation worldwide.
Assessing the achieved and missed co-benefits of INDCs Jun 2015 - Niklas Höhne of NewClimate Institute presents in a side event at the UNFCCC climate change conference in Bonn on assessing the achieved and missed co-benefits of INDCs.
Preparing INDCs – Progress and lessons learned Jun 2015 - Markus Hagemann of NewClimate Institute presents in a side event at the UNFCCC climate change conference in Bonn on the progress and lessons learned from INDC preparation.
Potential mitigation impact of good practice policies Jun 2015 - Hanna Fekete of NewClimate Institute presents in a side event at the UNFCCC climate change conference in Bonn on potential mitigation impacts of best practice policies.
Preparation of INDCs: Status and challenges [presentation & webcast] Jun 2015 - Niklas Höhne of NewClimate Institute presents on the status and challenges of INDC preperation at the fourth meeting of the Durban Forum on capacity-building
ACT 2015: Agreement for Climate Transformation Dec 2014 - NewClimate Institute co-presents progress from the ACT 2015 project at COP20 in Lima.