This research project undertaken by a consortium consisting of NewClimate Institute, the Center for Climate and Policy Research (CPRS) at Lynköping University (Sweden) and Mcgill University (Canada) focussed on addressing governance challenges of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation actions (NAMAs). As NAMAs are advancing from concept towards operationalisation a main challenge is to ensure that this happens in an internationally coordinated manner while simultaneously allowing for diversity in national actions. Against this background, the project first mapped NAMA interpretations, designs and institutional variations in five countries with different economic positions (Brazil, South Africa, India, Chile and Ethiopia). Secondly, the project explored institutional arrangements that facilitate a combination of international coordination and national diversity. And lastly the projects aimed to understand how NAMAs which focus more explicitly on innovation can support this agenda.