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Browse publications
Decarbonising the Indian transport sector: pathways and policies
Publication date 17 Dec 2020

The Climate Action Tracker explored a new approach to understanding opportunities for sectoral decarbonisation, using the example of the transport sector in India. To hold global average temperature increase to 1.5°C, global CO2 emissions need to reach net-zero by 2050, with rapid decarbonisation in all sectors. Global transport emissions have continued to steadily increase, with transport emissions accounting for 24 percent of direct CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. In this study we look specifically at how India can decarbonise its transport sector, its fastest-growing source of carbon...

Decreasing costs of renewables in Argentina (two reports)
Publication date 17 Dec 2020

Recent analyses developed by Fraunhofer ISI and NewClimate Institute show that faster and steeper than expected cost reductions for certain key mitigation technologies over the past five years can lead to an increased technology uptake and to a higher level of climate ambition, if the initially intended investment sum is maintained. The here presented technical assessment builds on the previously developed methodology to estimate the potential impact of investment cost reductions for renewable energy technologies (solar photovoltaics (PV) and onshore wind) on Argentina’s climate targets in the...

Results-Based Finance in the Paris Era
Publication date 16 Dec 2020

In order to reach the goals of the Paris Agreement, it is essential to rapidly move from a zero-sum offsetting approach towards rapid transitions to decarbonise all emitting sectors. Though originally developed for offsetting, using aspects of carbon market mechanisms to deliver results-based finance can have an important role in climate change mitigation and climate finance mobilisation goals. Such finance can either go towards helping host countries achieve their NDCs or in order to create an overall climate benefit. Various aspects and infrastructure built for carbon markets can be used as...

Subnational and non-state action in the EU
Publication date 14 Dec 2020

This study aims to obtain enhanced understanding of subnational (e.g. cities and subnational regions) and non-state (e.g. companies) actors’ action on GHG emissions reductions in the European Union (EU). Specifically, we present an overview of findings in the recent literature on (i) landscape of sub/non-state action, (ii) interactions between EU policy making and sub/non-state actors, (iii) potential GHG emissions reductions additional to the reductions expected under national policies, and (iv) progress towards their own short- to mid-term targets and long-term goals. This report focuses on...

The Emissions Gap Report 2020
Publication date 09 Dec 2020

This is the eleventh edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Emissions Gap Report. It assesses the gap between estimated future global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if countries implement their climate mitigation pledges and the global emission levels from least-cost pathways that are aligned with achieving the temperature goals of the Paris Agreement. This difference between “where we are likely to be and where we need to be” has become known as the ‘emissions gap’. The report also examines two areas that are highly relevant for bridging the gap and which have become even...

The Climate Change Performance Index 2021
Publication date 07 Dec 2020

Developed by Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute and CAN, the index rates 57 greenhouse emitters globally since 2005. Foreword The CCPI analyzes and compares climate protection across 57 countries (plus EU as a whole) with the highest emissions. Together these countries account for 90 percent of global emissions. The index aims to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enable comparison of mitigation efforts and progress made by individual countries. Main findings: Climate Change Performance Index 2021: Still no country good enough; EU stands at a crossroads The Climate...

NDC Update Report December 2020 – Come together
Publication date 07 Dec 2020

The 2020 NDC Update report discusses countries’ preparedness to ratchet up ambition in the first NDC update cycle amidst a global health crisis. Based on our survey of 98 policy makers and experts involved in NDC planning and implementation from 83 countries, we discuss the progress of NDC implementation since 2015, expectations for the NDC update cycle, and progress on the development of Long-term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategies (LTSs). We analyse the potential impact of COVID-19 on climate planning and climate action with regards to the future of clean technologies, the...

Indicators for the promotion of sustainable development in carbon market mechanisms
Publication date 03 Dec 2020

This report assesses options for the effective implementation of sustainable development impact assessment, in the context of climate change mitigation mechanisms such as those of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. To ensure that these mechanisms contribute to sustainable development in the host country, it is necessary to measure this effect. The results of the project show how and which indicators at project level can be used in a targeted manner for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV). In this way, tools are made available to decision-makers and project developers in voluntary and...

Indicators for sustainable development under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement
Publication date 03 Dec 2020

This report analyses how the role of sustainable development can be strengthened in the process of further designing the mechanisms under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. The paper reflects on the experience with sustainable development in past and current market mechanisms and describes to what extent countries agreed on sustainable development issues in multilateral instruments and institutions outside the UNFCCC. Based on the current negotiating draft texts (SBSTA 50 from June 2019, as well as CMA2 from December 2019), recommendations are put forward on how to anchor sustainable...

Haciendo Realidad las Estrategias a Largo Plazo para un Desarrollo Bajo en Emisiones de GEI
Publication date 03 Dec 2020

Esta guía ofrece recomendaciones a los tomadores de decisiones sobre cómo abordar la elaboración de una LTS o estrategia a largo plazo para un desarrollo bajo en emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, dadas las circunstancias singulares de cada país en 2020, y de las futuras revisiones de la misma. Resumen para Tomadores de Decisiones: Contexto En el marco del Acuerdo de París, las 198 Partes de la CMNUCC se comprometieron colectivamente a mantener el aumento de la temperatura media mundial muy por debajo de 2°C con respecto a los niveles preindustriales y perseguir esfuerzos para limitar...

Analysis of current developments in global carbon markets
Publication date 02 Dec 2020

The major aim of this research project was to provide insights on the state of current carbon market activities and options for supporting the continuation of new and existing mitigation activities in the pre-2020 period. This report contains a summary of the findings and combined conclusions from all analysis components addressed within the project. Main findings: In an analysis of CDM project vulnerability for major project types in key countries, we assessed the risk that projects would cease continuation of their GHG abatement without significant CER revenues. In this context, we conducted...

Climate Action Tracker Global update: Paris Agreement Turning Point
Publication date 01 Dec 2020

The recent wave of net zero targets has put the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C within striking distance. In this briefing, the Climate Action Tracker (CAT) has calculated that global warming by 2100 could be as low as 2.1°C as a result of all the net zero pledges announced as of November 2020. Included in our new modelling is the announcement by China in September 2020 that it intends to reach carbon neutrality before 2060, which reduces the CAT end of century warming estimate by 0.2 to 0.3°C alone. Assuming carbon neutrality in the USA by 2050, as proposed by President-Elect Biden, would reduce...

Considerations for Article 6 engagement
Publication date 26 Nov 2020

The new context of the Paris Agreement - particularly the universal commitment to regularly make increasingly ambitious contributions towards the global effort - present new challenges for carbon market stakeholders, especially for host countries. This guide proposes a number of considerations which countries hosting emission reduction activities should take into account when engaging in carbon markets under the Paris Agreement. It looks especially at how carbon market engagement relates to other aspects of national climate policy making and the fulfilment of commitments under the Paris regime...

Setting Incentives for Emission Reductions in Developing Countries: The Case of Social Housing in Colombia
Publication date 26 Nov 2020

Colombia faces a number of challenges including growing need for social housing in metropolitan areas driven by accelerating urbanisation associated with a growing electricity demand as well as increasing hydroelectric uncertainty as a result of changes in the el Niño weather phenomenon. At the same time, Colombia actively implementing its NDC under the Paris Agreement. These include measures to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector overall. Policies for renewable electricity, building codes, and appliance energy performance standards all play a role in these efforts. However...

CDM supply potential for emission reductions up to the end of 2020
Publication date 25 Nov 2020

The transition of CERs issued under the CDM for use by Parties towards their NDCs is a key outstanding issue for Article 6 negotiations at the UNFCCC. To inform the ongoing negotiations, we set out estimates of the potential CER supply by two groups of modelling teams, from research institutes in Japan and Germany. This paper presents an updated analysis of the potential supply of CERs issued for emission reductions occurring in the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2020 based on a selection of possible restrictions for their transition. Main...

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