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Browse publications
Non-state and subnational climate action in China and India
Publication date 17 Dec 2021

The two reports aim to obtain enhanced understanding of nascent but rapidly growing non-state and subnational actors’ action on GHG emissions reductions in China and India.

Transforming the finance sector with technical assistance
Publication date 24 Jun 2021

We assessed whether and to what extent the provision of technical assistance can help to transform the finance sector, using the example of support provided in the context of green bonds in China and Kenya. Main findings: In China, the government enacted a number of financial sector reforms to ease green finance flows, including green bond regulations. Technical assistance played a key role in supporting the establishment of China’s green bond market. In Kenya, the Kenya Bankers Association, together with the Nairobi Securities Exchange and international donors launched a Green Bond Programme...

Global climate action from cities, regions and businesses - 2021
Publication date 23 Jun 2021

This report is the third and the latest edition of the series since 2018 that take stock of climate action by cities, regions and businesses and their global aggregate impact on greenhouse gas emissions. The 2021 edition focuses on the progress of non-state and subnational actors toward their emissions reduction targets. Main findings: In this report, we focus on subnational and non-state action in ten major emitting economies: Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union (EU-27) plus the United Kingdom (UK), India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, South Africa, and the United States (US). We find that...

Operationalization Framework on Aligning with the Paris Agreement
Publication date 04 Jun 2021

In 2017, the International Development Finance Club (IDFC) together with the group of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) made a joint commitment to “align financial flows with the Paris Agreement”. With this framework, NewClimate Institute and I4CE provide IDFC members with clear and practical guidance on how to align their operations with the requirements of the Paris Agreement. Main findings: In 2017, the International Development Finance Club (IDFC) together with the group of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) made a joint commitment to “align financial flows with the Paris Agreement”...

Climate, COVID-19, and the Developing Country Debt Crisis
Publication date 01 Apr 2021

The triple COVID-19, economic, and climate crisis poses a growing challenge to debt sustainability and financing for climate action. There are growing calls to look for solutions for the three crisis together, notably through “debt-for-climate” swaps. Though not a general panacea, such proposals may represent an attractive option for both debtors and creditors. As an input into this ongoing discussion, this working paper proposes several potential broad criteria and proxy indicators as a starting point to identify countries where such debt swaps could be piloted, potentially with lessons...

Unpacking the finance sector’s climate related investment commitments
Publication date 22 Sep 2020

Financial institution’s climate-related investment targets have rapidly grown in recent years. In this report, we provide insights into the magnitude and ambition of these targets, and investigate their relationship with GHG emissions in the real economy. Specifically, this report maps out the financial sector’s climate-related investment targets against a range of indicators, such as monetary investments in ‘green’ projects, and required ‘green’ investments and GHG emission reductions. It thereby considers both climate-related investment pledges made by individual financial institutions as...

Bringing climate policy up to date – decreasing cost projections for renewable energy and batteries and their implications (case study Canada)
Publication date 27 May 2019

This case study presents the potential impact of lower battery and renewable energy costs projections in Canada's NDC emissions target. Main findings The costs for renewable electricity generation and electric vehicles have dropped since the NDCs were developed, and future cost projections also decreased as a result. Wachsmuth and Anatolitis (2018) suggest a simple method to estimate increased RE capacities and EV penetration resulting from these cost decreases. The method assumes that lower battery costs lead to a higher market uptake of EVs and that the savings from decreased RE capacity...

Nordic opportunities to provide leadership in the Global Climate Action Agenda
Publication date 22 May 2019

The Global Climate Action Agenda (GCAA) covers a wealth of cooperative action between governments, cities, businesses, non-governmental organisations and citizens. Non-state climate initiatives under the GCAA represent a key means to rapidly bridge the gaps in current climate action. This report identifies some 300 international cooperative initiatives worldwide, noting Nordic stakeholders among the most active participants within these initiatives. The analysis recommends continued Nordic support for initiatives with strong commitments to effective and transparent action. It also filters out...

A research roadmap for quantifying non-state and subnational climate mitigation action
Publication date 19 Dec 2018

Non-state and subnational climate actors have become central to global climate change governance. Quantitatively assessing climate mitigation undertaken by these entities is critical to understand the credibility of this trend. In this Perspective, we make recommendations regarding five main areas of research and methodological development related to evaluating nonstate and subnational climate actions: defining clear boundaries and terminology; use of common methodologies to aggregate and assess non-state and subnational contributions; systematically dealing with issues of overlap; estimating...

NDC Update Report November 2018 - Ambition: Taking a long-term perspective
Publication date 07 Dec 2018

The NDC Update Report tracks the progress on the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement. The theme of this edition is "Ambition": We look ahead and explore whether governments are ready for the next round of pledges and where support and preparation could focus. Executive summary: In December 2018, two years on from the ratification of the Paris Agreement, and two years from the first call for more ambitious pledges, the international community is cautiously observing collective efforts to reduce emissions. The IPCC report Global Warming of 1.5oC...

Allianz Climate and Energy Monitor 2018
Publication date 26 Nov 2018

The Allianz Climate and Energy Monitor ranks G20 member states on their current attractiveness as potential destinations for investments in low-carbon electricity infrastructure. It further considers their current and future investment needs in line with a trajectory compatible with the 2°C/1.5°C temperature limits of the Paris Agreement. Key findings : France now most attractive for renewable energy investments, Brazil climbs 5 ranks and Italy 4 ranks with much improved conditions. All countries need to improve their policy framework for required low-carbon investments. Germany loses first...

Bridging the emissions gap - The role of non-state and subnational actors
Publication date 11 Sep 2018

This publication is a pre-release version of a chapter in the forthcoming UN Environment Emissions Gap Report 2018. It provides an assessment of the role and potential impact of mitigation actions by non-state and subnational actors such as cities, states, regions, companies, investors and foundations. Key findings: Many non-state actors are engaging in mitigation action, across sectors and regions: Non-state and subnational actors have the opportunity both to be part of implementing mitigation commitments made at national level and to go beyond current pledges and raise ambition. The number...

Global climate action from cities, regions and businesses
Publication date 30 Aug 2018

Since the Paris Climate Agreement solidified an “all hands on deck” approach to climate change, cities, regions and businesses have become key contributors to mitigation, adaptation and finance efforts. These actors are pledging a range of actions, from directly reducing their own greenhouse gas emissions footprints, to building capacity for climate adaptation and resilience to providing private finance. This report is the most comprehensive assessment of these non-state actor commitments to reduce greenhouse gases to date. The report focuses on 9 high-emitting countries – Brazil, China, India...

Tunisia: Derisking Renewable Energy Investment 2018
Publication date 26 Jun 2018

The study updates an earlier 2014 analyses and was conducted in cooperation with ALCOR and UNDP. Objective Developing countries often suffer from a high cost of capital. Because utility-scale wind and solar photovoltaic power plants require high upfront capital investments, the corresponding levelized cost of electricity (LCOEs) are very sensible to the cost of capital. States can respond to a high a cost of capital by introducing public derisking measures, that can be understood as interventions by the government and its partners to address specific investment risks, in the form of policies...

NDC Update Report Special Edition: Linking NDCs and SDGs
Publication date 07 May 2018

In this special edition of the NDC Update Report, we focus on the relationship between Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and explore how climate and development actions can support each other. Key messages: 2015 was a breakthrough year for climate action and development, with the signing of the Paris Agree­ment and a global commitment to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. These challenging and comprehensive global agendas require fundamental rethinking of the way our economies operate and have led to renewed calls for greater...

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