The paper is a joint effort from the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Ecofys, the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research (CSPR), the Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP), GIZ, NewClimate Institute, WRI and UNDP.
Countries representing more than 90 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions and population have submitted intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) in anticipation of the 21st COP in Paris. In parallel, developing countries are designing at least 152 nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and 13 have secured implementation funding. Connecting these two concepts, more than a third of developing countries communicate a role for NAMAs in their INDCs.
It is therefore vital to understand the potential role of NAMAs (here understood as specific actions) with respect to INDCs (which are often broader targets) and vice versa. This paper explores the links between NAMAs and INDCs with regard to various elements central to their implementation, including: access to finance; stakeholder engagement; sustainable development impacts; measurement, reporting and verification (MRV); and institutional frameworks.